INTERNET AND EDUCATION: digital lecture rooms for each person?
A dusty, one-room schoolhouse on the brink of a village. An
overworked trainer seeking to control a room complete of boisterous youngsters. Students sharing
schoolbooks which are in perpetual quick supply, stuffed in rows of battered desks. Children worn
out after lengthy treks to highschool, stomachs rumbling with hunger. Others who vanish for weeks on
stop, supporting their parents with the year-stop harvest. Still others who in no way come lower back, missing
the money to pay for college uniforms and college materials. Such is the day by day quandary faced with the aid of
many young people in the growing world as they searching for to reap that maximum valuable of all
commodities, an training.
With the worldwide economy relying extra than ever on brainpower and innovation as opposed to uncooked
substances and manual labour as mills of wealth, a good training has end up the key aspect
figuring out who will succeed and who can be left behind. With countries within the growing international
stretching their budgets to the restriction, and with training ranking low on a few governments
listing of spending priorities, the odds seem to be stacked against their favour. And the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) estimates that there might be
extra humans to teach within the next thirty years than have ever been knowledgeable up up to now in
Figures for 1995 display the sad impact educational overlook is having on the poor. While 70 in line with
cent of children in low-profits international locations had been enrolled in primary education, the enrollment
parent for secondary training changed into only 17 in keeping with cent. In comparison, industrialized countries
retained almost 100 per cent enrollment in each number one and secondary faculties. The erosion
continues in better schooling, wherein best 6 in step with cent of college students in low-earnings countries
persevered their schooling in comparison to 57 consistent with cent within the industrialized world. The result?
Entire generations of kids and young people that aren’t able to enjoy face-to-face
training are condemned to poverty if conventional education remains the handiest road of bringing
expertise and capabilities.
One manner which governments have attempted to enlarge instructional possibilities to as many humans as
feasible whilst keeping down expenses is thru distance-gaining knowledge of. For the ones too far far from
schools or universities, too busy supporting out at domestic to attend college on a ordinary foundation, or
too poor to pay training, distance mastering has established to be an appealing alternative.
With the upward thrust of the Internet the gap-studying revel in has been completely
converted. In the beyond, distance studying was in large part a lonely enjoy, in which the
student changed into faced with a pile of mailed getting to know fabric and sporadic and based
interplay with an elusive and remote teach. In this kind of international, the pupil now not most effective needed to
triumph over some of difficulties to interact with the tutor, however he/she also faced prolonged
intervals of time among the sending of a request and receiving a respond. Furthermore, interplay
became confined to that among man or woman college students and their coach, on the grounds that no sort of
verbal exchange existed with other college students.
In comparison, the Internet constitutes a virtual school room in which excessive interactivity and
the sharing of assets and records constitutes its essence. This isn’t always to mention that there
had been no digital classes before the upward push of the Internet. For a few years, some of academic
establishments struggled to develop and preserve distance-education programmes that have been designed
for tele-conferencing structures. The extremely excessive value of the service, however, limited its
increase. For maximum developingcountries, the technology was a ways past their reach. A selected few
had been able to put in force the system in a constrained fashion for a small elite. Furthermore, the need
of actual-time presence made the device quite rigid and not very adequate for a time wherein
bendy training hours are critical.
Education officers in nations consisting of Canada, america, France, Germany and Italy
have already made commitments to cord all or maximum of their colleges up to the Internet. In the
growing global, South Africa launched its SchoolNet undertaking in 1997 designed to pool
knowledge and resources in developing partnerships in regions including Internet connectivity and
curriculum improvement with a view to build a national academic network. In 1999, SchoolNet
partnered with Telkom Foundation to educate over 2000 teachers in 1035 colleges at some point of South
Africa. The Catholic University in Chile released the “Enlaces” programme in 1992,
which commenced out connecting a half-dozen colleges in far flung, indigenous areas with 2 computers
every prepared with 2400 bit/s modems making use of wireless era.
The International Telecommunication Union, through its Telecommunication Development Bureau
and in partnership with UNESCO, has also emerge as involved in lengthy-distance getting to know projects. One
of the goals of those tasks is to address a phenomenon not unusual inside the developing international
faculty teachers who’ve been at the process for years, even many years, and whose abilities have eroded
due to the fact they have been left to fend for themselves. Distance-learning and the usage of the
Internet gives splendid possibilities to enhance the fine of coaching and, and therefore
mastering. For example, statistics from Education Foundation Trust, a non-profit believe primarily based in
South Africa, display that, in 1991, forty percent of African instructors in South Africa had been
underneath-certified. But through a number of active measures adopted with the aid of the Government, together with
the implementation of distance-learning initiatives in partnership with non-public businesses, the
scenario has greatly improved and the quantity of underneath-qualified teachers dropped to 25% in 1999
despite an average growth of seven% of teachers due to the fact that 1991.
Two such tasks, planned for India and Morocco, will cognizance on re-education primary school
teachers so that it will carry them up to date on new coaching practices and methodologies. The
pilot projects will cause the established order, within the two international locations, of fifteen to twenty
gaining knowledge of centres in lecture rooms which can manage up to 40 teacher-students. Each of these
learning centres could be connected to the main schooling centre, in which the studio centers and
preparation personnel are based totally, the use of a totally small aperture terminal (VSAT) hookup.
In Morocco, each learning centre can be ready with a display screen and simplified phone
terminal allowing the pupil-instructors to look and comply with the instructions of the instructors and
input data on a keyboard, discover themselves or respond to questions and answers. In
India, the project could be extra superior. A complete video-conferencing facility could be hooked up
the use of a VSAT hookup with a 2 Mbit/s outbound and a 384 kbit/s go back transmission speeds, hence
making an allowance for more interactive, real-time exchanges among the instructors and the
instructor-students at the learning centres.
In the initial degree, each tasks will rely on VSAT technology, with constrained use of
Internet capabilities. The decision to limit the scope of available Internet abilties is
primarily based on economics. With much less than fifty studying centres, the most price-effective method is
to restriction a number of the capabilities provided through the Internet (as an example through the collective
use of best 1 personal pc consistent with studying centre, no browsing functionality, and so on). “With so
few centres worried, full Internet competencies could be prohibitively excessive and would be a
deterring component to the deployment of Internet-primarily based tele-training solutions”, says ITUs
Petko Kantchev. “The fee of the hub may be very steeply-priced if all Internet talents are
enabled. What is important is first to illustrate the benefits of such applications to create
the demand and then expand the functionalities”, he said.
The expectation is that when the tasks are expanded to round 100 to one hundred fifty mastering centres,
the switch could be made to Internet Protocol-based VSAT networks. “As the variety grows to
over 100 gaining knowledge of centres, the investment value consistent with centre decreases and significantly offsets the
required funding within the hub. When this threshold is reached, the economies of scale make an
IP-based VSAT machine financially appealing in addition to allowing the overall variety of Internet
abilities and permitting the number of learning centres to develop unexpectedly. Cybercafés to be used via
the population in underserved regions may even be envisaged at little incremental costs”,
For each projects in India and Morocco, hundreds or maybe lots of gaining knowledge of centres are
anticipated to be applied after the two-12 months pilot segment.
The tasks are luxurious approximately USD 50 000 for each gaining knowledge of centre and around
USD 800 000 to 900 000 for each foremost centre, inclusive of studio centers and statistics
management systems. But the price looks affordable whilst compared to the alternative bringing
in lots, if not loads of thousands, of teachers to local or countrywide capitals for
retraining, or permitting the academic rot to maintain. In the case of Morocco, maximum of the
fee for the pilot initiatives could be included by way of a World Bank improvement mortgage. In India maximum of
the value could be included with the aid of the Department of Elementary Education, the Ministry of Human
Resource Development and the Department of Telecommunication. UNESCO, for its part, is
liable for the supervision of all schooling-related components of both pilot projects. ITU
chipped in USD 250 000 to help get the programmes of every pilot assignment off the floor. Indias
assignment is already inside the implementation level, even as, in Morocco, an ITU technical crew is
presently operating to assist set up the design of the gadget architecture and its implementation.
It is perhaps at the higher schooling tiers where the Internet can be best.
Obtaining a university degree through distance mastering is already an established exercise, with
possibly the maximum famous example being the Open University in the United Kingdom, which has
extra than 200 000 students. In Mexico, the Monterreys Institute of Technology and Higher
Studies (ITESM) hooked up a Virtual University that began offering courses thru satellite in
1997 and that is now transferring towards Internet-based totally practise. In Thailand, Sukhothai
Thammathirat Open University has released a pilot Virtual Campus programme which gives
distance learning over the Internet. The African Virtual University undertaking, which counts two
dozen universities at some point of Africa as participants, has provided distance-mastering guides
thru the INTELSAT community however is now moving most of its getting to know sports into
ITU is making its own contribution through its Global Telecommunication University/Global
Telecommunication Training Institute (GTU/GTTI). The consciousness is on engineering and control
training in the telecommunications field with a purpose to assist growing countries address new
technologies and open, aggressive markets. Test publications provided up to now in its Virtual Training
Centre have targeted on wireless access, telecommunication regulation, spectrum control,
schooling via Internet. ITU hopes to start presenting lengthy-term authorised programmes inside the
near destiny and to steady public and private zone backing so one can allow GTU/GTTI to grow to be
an independent, self-sufficient group.
Education through the Internet nonetheless faces great hurdles in many parts of the developing
world, the primary and main being the terrible country of the internal telecommunication
infrastructure and the prohibitively excessive price of phone and Internet access expenses.
Educators additionally face the task of designing and providing appropriate training materials
which can be tailored to the Internet. Most academic content now available on-line became designed
in Europe or North America, and is consequently no longer altogether appropriate or appropriate for college students
elsewhere. But the truth that many universities are now moving their present distance-gaining knowledge of
programmes to the Internet indicates its ability as a tool for expanding educational
possibilities. With sturdy backing from each the public and private sectors, Internet schooling
can make contributions to the fight in opposition to one of the greatest threats facing the growing international
nowadays, that of educational neglect.
For further analyzing, see Whats so unique approximately the
Internet and Internet for Development:
Challenges to the community, 1999
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