Weight Reduction – Wikipedia

This article needs interest from an expert in medication. The precise trouble is: The strategies for weight reduction are quite debatable and probable need correction and growth.. WikiProject Medicine may be capable of assist recruit an expert.(June 2019)

Weight loss

Weight loss, inside the context of medicine, fitness, or bodily fitness, refers to a discount of the whole body mass, with the aid of a mean lack of fluid, frame fats (adipose tissue), or lean mass (particularly bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and different connective tissue). Weight loss can either occur by chance due to malnourishment or an underlying disease, or from a conscious attempt to improve an actual or perceived obese or obese country.”Unexplained” weight reduction that is not as a result of discount in calorific intake or workout is called cachexia and can be a symptom of a serious medical condition. Intentional weight loss is commonly known as slimming.

Intentional

Intentional weight reduction is the lack of overall body mass because of efforts to improve fitness and fitness, or to change look thru slimming. Weight loss is the main treatment for obesity,[1][2][3] and there is tremendous evidence this will save you development from prediabetes to kind 2 diabetes with a 7-10% weight reduction and control cardiometabolic health for diabetic human beings with a five-15% weight reduction.[4]

Weight loss in folks who are obese or obese can lessen health risks,[5] growth fitness,[6] and can delay the onset of diabetes.[5] It should reduce ache and increase movement in human beings with osteoarthritis of the knee.[6] Weight loss can cause a discount in high blood pressure (excessive blood pressure), but whether this reduces hypertension-associated harm is doubtful.[five][failed verification] Weight loss is accomplished via adopting a life-style wherein fewer calories are consumed than are expended.[7] Depression, pressure or boredom may also make a contribution to weight growth,[8] and in those instances, people are recommended to are searching for scientific assist. A 2010 observe located that dieters who got a complete night’s sleep lost extra than two times as a whole lot fat as sleep-disadvantaged dieters.[nine][10] Though hypothesized that supplementation of vitamin D can also help, studies do not help this.[11] The majority of dieters regain weight over the long term.[12] According to the United Kingdom National Health Service and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, those who achieve and control a healthy weight accomplish that most correctly by means of being cautious to eat simply sufficient calories to meet their desires, and being physically active.[13][7]

In order for weight reduction to be everlasting, changes in weight-reduction plan and life-style have to be everlasting as well.[14][15][sixteen] There is evidence that counseling or exercise alone do not result in weight reduction, whereas weight-reduction plan on my own outcomes in meaningful long-time period weight reduction, and a aggregate of dieting and workout affords the first-class results.[17] Meal replacements, orlistat and really-low-calorie food plan interventions additionally produce significant weight loss.[18]

Techniques

The least intrusive weight reduction methods, and people most often encouraged, are changes to ingesting patterns and multiplied physical activity, typically in the shape of exercise. The World Health Organization recommends that people combine a reduction of processed meals excessive in saturated fat, sugar and salt[19] and caloric content of the food regimen with an boom in physical activity.[20] Self-tracking of food regimen, workout, and weight are useful techniques for weight reduction,[21][22] mainly early in weight loss applications.[23] Research shows that individuals who log their meals about 3 instances in keeping with day and about 20 instances consistent with month are more likely to gain clinically substantial weight loss.[24]

Orlistat (Xenical) the maximum typically used remedy to deal with obesity and sibutramine (Meridia) a withdrawn remedy because of cardiovascular side effects

An boom in fiber intake is suggested for regulating bowel actions. Other strategies of weight loss encompass use of medicine and dietary supplements that lower urge for food, block fat absorption, or lessen belly volume. Bariatric surgical operation may be indicated in cases of extreme obesity.Two common bariatric surgical strategies are gastric pass and gastric banding.[25] Both may be effective at restricting the consumption of food electricity by reducing the dimensions of the belly, but as with every surgical treatment each include their very own dangers[26] that need to be considered in consultation with a physician. Dietary dietary supplements, though extensively used, are not taken into consideration a healthy option for weight loss.[27] Many are available, however only a few are effective inside the long term.[28]

Virtual gastric band uses hypnosis to make the mind assume the belly is smaller than it honestly is and subsequently decrease the quantity of meals ingested. This brings accordingly weight loss. This approach is complemented with psychological remedy for tension management and with hypnopedia. Research has been conducted into using hypnosis as a weight management alternative.[29][30][31][32] In 1996, a examine observed that cognitive-behavioral therapy became more powerful for weight reduction if strengthened with hypnosis.[30] Acceptance and commitment therapy, a mindfulness technique to weight loss, has been verified as beneficial.[33] Herbal medicines have additionally been recommended; however, there’s no strong proof that herbal medicines are powerful.[34]

Weight loss enterprise

There is a widespread market for products which declare to make weight loss simpler, faster, inexpensive, greater reliable, or much less painful. These encompass books, DVDs, CDs, cremes, creams, drugs, jewelry and jewelry, frame wraps, frame belts and different materials, health centers, clinics, non-public coaches, weight reduction corporations, and meals merchandise and dietary supplements.[35]

In 2008, among US$33 billion and $55 billion turned into spent yearly within the US on weight reduction services and products, including medical methods and prescribed drugs, with weight reduction centers taking between 6 and 12 percent of overall annual expenditure. Over $1.6 billion per 12 months turned into spent on weight-loss supplements. About 70 percent of Americans’ weight-reduction plan tries are of a self-help nature.[36][37]

In Western Europe, income of weight reduction products, excluding prescription medicinal drugs, topped €1,25 billion (£900 million/$1.four billion) in 2009.[37]

The medical soundness of commercial diets by means of business weight management companies varies broadly, being formerly non-evidence-based, so there is only restrained evidence supporting their use, due to high attrition fees.[38][39][forty][41][forty two][forty three] Commercial diets result in modest weight loss inside the long time, with similar results regardless of the brand,[40][42][forty four][45] and in addition to non-industrial diets and popular care.[38][three] Comprehensive weight loss plan packages, providing counseling and goals for calorie consumption, are extra efficient than weight-reduction plan with out guidance (“self-assist”),[38][forty six][forty five] despite the fact that the proof may be very constrained.[forty three] The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence devised a set of crucial standards to be met with the aid of commercial weight control corporations to be accepted.[forty one]

UnintentionalCharacteristics

Unintentional weight reduction may result from loss of body fat, loss of frame fluids, muscle atrophy, or a aggregate of those.[47][forty eight] It is generally regarded as a scientific problem when as a minimum 10% of someone’s frame weight has been misplaced in six months[forty seven][49] or five% inside the remaining month.[50] Another criterion used for assessing weight this is too low is the frame mass index (BMI).[51] However, even lesser amounts of weight loss can be a reason for critical problem in a frail aged character.[52]

Unintentional weight reduction can occur because of an inadequately nutritious weight loss plan relative to a person’s strength wishes (normally known as malnutrition). Disease tactics, modifications in metabolism, hormonal modifications, medications or other remedies, disease- or treatment-associated dietary changes, or reduced urge for food associated with a ailment or remedy can also reason unintended weight loss.[47][forty eight][53][fifty four][55] Poor nutrient utilization can lead to weight loss, and may be due to fistulae within the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea, drug-nutrient interaction, enzyme depletion and muscle atrophy.[49]

Continuing weight loss can also become worse into wasting, a vaguely defined circumstance called cachexia.[fifty two] Cachexia differs from hunger in part as it involves a systemic inflammatory response.[fifty two] It is associated with poorer consequences.[forty seven][52][fifty three] In the superior tiers of modern sickness, metabolism can exchange so they shed pounds even if they’re getting what’s typically appeared as good enough nutrition and the frame can not compensate. This leads to a condition known as anorexia cachexia syndrome (ACS) and extra nutrients or supplementation is not likely to assist.[forty nine] Symptoms of weight reduction from ACS consist of extreme weight loss from muscle instead of body fats, loss of urge for food and feeling full after consuming small amounts, nausea, anemia, weak point and fatigue.[49]

Serious weight loss can also lessen great of lifestyles, impair treatment effectiveness or recuperation, get worse sickness processes and be a danger component for excessive mortality prices.[47][52] Malnutrition can affect every feature of the human body, from the cells to the maximum complex frame capabilities, along with:[fifty one]

  • immune reaction;
  • wound restoration;
  • muscle electricity (consisting of respiratory muscle tissues);
  • renal potential and depletion leading to water and electrolyte disturbances;
  • thermoregulation; and
  • menstruation.

Malnutrition can result in diet and other deficiencies and to state of being inactive, which in flip may also pre-dispose to different troubles, which include stress sores.[fifty one] Unintentional weight loss can be the characteristic main to diagnosis of sicknesses including most cancers[47] and sort 1 diabetes.[56] In the UK, up to five% of the overall populace is underweight, however more than 10% of these with lung or gastrointestinal sicknesses and who’ve recently had surgery.[fifty one] According to information inside the UK the use of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (‘MUST’), which includes unintentional weight reduction, extra than 10% of the populace over the age of sixty five is vulnerable to malnutrition.[fifty one] A high percentage (10–60%) of medical institution sufferers are also at chance, along with a comparable proportion in care houses.[51]

Causes

Disease-associated malnutrition may be considered in 4 classes:[51]

Problem

CauseImpaired consumption

Poor appetite can be a right away symptom of an contamination, or an illness should make consuming painful or set off nausea. Illness can also cause food aversion.

Inability to consume can result from: faded attention or confusion, or physical troubles affecting the arm or fingers, swallowing or chewing. Eating restrictions may also be imposed as a part of treatment or investigations.

Lack of meals can end result from: poverty, trouble in buying or cooking, and poor first-class food.

Impaired digestion &/or absorption

This can end result from conditions that affect the digestive system.Altered requirements

Changes to metabolic demands can be as a result of infection, surgical operation and organ dysfunction.Excess nutrient losses

Losses from the gastrointestinal can occur because of symptoms along with vomiting or diarrhea, as well as fistulae and stomas. There can also be losses from drains, including nasogastric tubes.

Other losses: Conditions such as burns can be related to losses consisting of pores and skin exudates.

Weight loss problems associated with unique sicknesses include:

  • As chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) advances, about 35% of sufferers revel in severe weight loss known as pulmonary cachexia, together with dwindled muscular tissues.[fifty three] Around 25% enjoy slight to severe weight loss, and most others have some weight reduction.[53] Greater weight loss is related to poorer diagnosis.[fifty three] Theories approximately contributing factors include urge for food loss related to reduced activity, additional energy required for respiration, and the issue of consuming with dyspnea (worked breathing).[53]
  • Cancer, a very commonplace and occasionally fatal motive of unexplained (idiopathic) weight loss. About one-0.33 of unintentional weight reduction cases are secondary to malignancy. Cancers to suspect in patients with unexplained weight reduction include gastrointestinal, prostate, hepatobiliary (hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer), ovarian, hematologic or lung malignancies.
  • People with HIV regularly experience weight reduction, and it’s miles related to poorer consequences.[57] Wasting syndrome is an AIDS-defining circumstance.[57]
  • Gastrointestinal issues are every other not unusual motive of unexplained weight reduction – in fact they’re the most common non-cancerous purpose of idiopathic weight loss.[quotation wished] Possible gastrointestinal etiologies of unexplained weight reduction include: celiac disease, peptic ulcer sickness, inflammatory bowel ailment (crohn’s disorder and ulcerative colitis), pancreatitis, gastritis, diarrhea and plenty of other GI situations.
  • Infection. Some infectious sicknesses can reason weight reduction. Fungal illnesses, endocarditis, many parasitic diseases, AIDS, and some other subacute or occult infections can also reason weight loss.
  • Renal disease. Patients who have uremia regularly have poor or absent urge for food, vomiting and nausea. This can cause weight loss.
  • Cardiac disease. Cardiovascular sickness, mainly congestive coronary heart failure, may additionally purpose unexplained weight loss.
  • Connective tissue ailment
  • Oral, flavor or dental troubles (together with infections) can lessen nutrient consumption main to weight loss.[forty nine]

Medical remedy can at once or indirectly reason weight loss, impairing treatment effectiveness and recovery that may cause similarly weight loss in a vicious cycle.[47] Many patients will be in pain and have a lack of appetite after surgical treatment.[forty seven] Part of the frame’s response to surgical operation is to direct strength to wound recuperation, which increases the frame’s common power requirements.[forty seven] Surgery influences dietary reputation in a roundabout way, particularly throughout the restoration duration, as it may intervene with wound restoration and other aspects of restoration.[47][fifty one] Surgery immediately impacts dietary repute if a procedure permanently alters the digestive machine.[forty seven] Enteral vitamins (tube feeding) is regularly wished.[forty seven] However a coverage of ‘nil by means of mouth’ for all gastrointestinal surgical procedure has no longer been proven to benefit, with some vulnerable proof suggesting it’d avoid restoration.[fifty eight] Early put up-operative nutrients is part of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocols.[59] These protocols also encompass carbohydrate loading within the 24 hours earlier than surgery, but earlier nutritional interventions have no longer been proven to have a enormous effect.[59]

Social situations which include poverty, social isolation and incapability to get or put together favored foods can cause accidental weight reduction, and this could be specifically common in older humans.[60] Nutrient consumption also can be suffering from culture, circle of relatives and belief systems.[49] Ill-fitting dentures and other dental or oral health issues can also affect adequacy of nutrients.[49]

Loss of hope, fame or social touch and non secular misery can motive despair, which may be related to decreased vitamins, as can fatigue.[forty nine]

Myths

Some famous ideals attached to weight loss were proven to either have less effect on weight loss than generally believed or are actively bad. According to Harvard Health, the concept of metabolic price being the “key to weight” is “part reality and part fantasy” as whilst metabolism does affect weight reduction, external forces together with eating regimen and exercise have an same effect.[sixty one] They additionally commented that the idea of changing one’s fee of metabolism is under debate.[sixty one] Diet plans in fitness magazines are also frequently believed to be effective but can also in reality be harmful via limiting the day by day intake of vital calories and vitamins which may be detrimental depending on the man or woman and are even able to driving people far from weight reduction.[62]

Health results

Obesity will increase fitness dangers, together with diabetes, most cancers, cardiovascular sickness, excessive blood strain, and non-alcoholic fatty liver sickness, to name some. Reduction of obesity lowers those dangers. A 1-kg loss of frame weight has been related to an approximate 1-mm Hg drop in blood stress.[sixty three] Intentional weight reduction is associated with cognitive performance upgrades in overweight and overweight people.[sixty four]

See alsoReferences

  • ^ US Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). “2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans – fitness.gov”. fitness.gov. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. Retrieved 30 September 2019.

  • ^ Arnett, Donna K.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Albert, Michelle A.; Buroker, Andrew B.; Goldberger, Zachary D.; Hahn, Ellen J.; Himmelfarb, Cheryl D.; Khera, Amit; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; McEvoy, J. William; Michos, Erin D.; Miedema, Michael D.; Muñoz, Daniel; Smith, Sidney C.; Virani, Salim S.; Williams, Kim A.; Yeboah, Joseph; Ziaeian, Boback (17 March 2019). “2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease”. Circulation. one hundred forty (eleven): e596–e646. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000678. PMID 30879355.

  • ^ a b Jensen, MD; Ryan, DH; Apovian, CM; Ard, JD; Comuzzie, AG; Donato, KA; Hu, FB; Hubbard, VS; Jakicic, JM; Kushner, RF; Loria, CM; Millen, BE; Nonas, CA; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Stevens, J; Stevens, VJ; Wadden, TA; Wolfe, BM; Yanovski, SZ; Jordan, HS; Kendall, KA; Lux, LJ; Mentor-Marcel, R; Morgan, LC; Trisolini, MG; Wnek, J; Anderson, JL; Halperin, JL; Albert, NM; Bozkurt, B; Brindis, RG; Curtis, LH; DeMets, D; Hochman, JS; Kovacs, RJ; Ohman, EM; Pressler, SJ; Sellke, FW; Shen, WK; Smith SC, Jr; Tomaselli, GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice, Guidelines.; Obesity, Society. (24 June 2014). “2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of obese and obesity in adults: a record of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society”. Circulation (Professional society tenet). 129 (25 Suppl 2): S102-38. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000437739.71477.ee. PMC 5819889. PMID 24222017.

  • ^ Evert, Alison B.; Dennison, Michelle; Gardner, Christopher D.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Lau, Ka Hei Karen; MacLeod, Janice; Mitri, Joanna; Pereira, Raquel F.; Rawlings, Kelly; Robinson, Shamera; Saslow, Laura; Uelmen, Sacha; Urbanski, Patricia B.; Yancy, William S. (May 2019). “Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report”. Diabetes Care (Professional society suggestions). forty two (5): 731–754. doi:10.2337/dci19-0014. PMC 7011201. PMID 31000505.

  • ^ a b c LeBlanc, E; O’Connor, E; Whitlock, EP (October 2011). “Screening for and control of obesity and obese in adults”. Evidence Syntheses, No. 89. U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Retrieved 27 June 2013.

  • ^ a b Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. “Health benefits of losing weight”. Fact sheet, Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 27 June 2013.

  • ^ a b “Health Weight – Understanding Calories”. National Health Service. 19 August 2016.

  • ^ “Moods for Overeating: Good, Bad, and Bored”. Psychology Today. Retrieved 17 October 2018.

  • ^ Nedeltcheva, AV; Kilkus, JM; Imperial, J; Schoeller, DA; Penev, PD (2010). “Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to lessen adiposity”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 153 (7): 435–41. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-7-201010050-00006. PMC 2951287. PMID 20921542.

  • ^ Harmon, Katherine (four October 2010). “Sleep may help dieters shed greater fat”. Scientific American. Retrieved 20 October 2010.

  • ^ Pathak, K.; Soares, M. J.; Calton, E. K.; Zhao, Y.; Hallett, J. (1 June 2014). “Vitamin D supplementation and body weight reputation: a scientific review and meta-analysis of randomized managed trials”. Obesity Reviews. 15 (6): 528–37. doi:10.1111/obr.12162. ISSN 1467-789X. PMID 24528624.

  • ^ Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph (2013). “The defence of frame weight: A physiological foundation for weight regain after weight reduction”. Clinical Science. 124 (4): 231–forty one. doi:10.1042/CS20120223. PMID 23126426.

  • ^ “Executive Summary”. Dietary Guidelines 2015–2020. Retrieved 2 May 2016.

  • ^ Hart, Katherine (2018). “four.6 Fad diets and fasting for weight reduction in obesity.”.In Hankey, Catherine (ed.). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in weight problems. Wiley. pp. 177–182. ISBN 9780470670767.

  • ^ Hankey, Catherine (23 November 2017). Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 179–181. ISBN 9781118857977.

  • ^ “Fact Sheet—Fad diets” (PDF). British Dietetic Association. 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Fad-diets may be tempting as they offer a brief-restore to a protracted-term trouble.

  • ^ The Look AHEAD Research Group (2014). “Eight-year weight losses with an in depth lifestyle intervention: The appearance AHEAD have a look at: 8-Year Weight Losses in Look AHEAD”. Obesity. 22 (1): 5–thirteen. doi:10.1002/oby.20662. PMC 3904491. PMID 24307184.

  • ^ Thom, G; Lean, M (May 2017). “Is There an Optimal Diet for Weight Management and Metabolic Health?” (PDF). Gastroenterology. 152 (7): 1739–1751. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.01.056. PMID 28214525.

  • ^ “World Health Organization recommends eating much less processed meals”. BBC News. 3 March 2003.

  • ^ “Choosing a safe and successful food plan”. Weight-manipulate Information Network. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2020.

  • ^ Burke, Lora E.; Wang, Jing; Sevick, Mary Ann (2011). “Self-Monitoring in Weight Loss: A Systematic Review of the Literature”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 111 (1): ninety two–102. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.10.008. PMC 3268700. PMID 21185970.

  • ^ Steinberg, Dori M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Bennett, Gary G.; Ennett, Susan; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Ward, Dianne S. (2013). “The efficacy of a each day self-weighing weight reduction intervention using smart scales and email: Daily Self-Weighing Weight Loss Intervention”. Obesity. 21 (nine): 1789–97. doi:10.1002/oby.20396. PMC 3788086. PMID 23512320.

  • ^ Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Bursac, Zoran; Ashikaga, Taka; West, Delia Smith (2013). “Patterns of fulfillment: Online self-tracking in a web-primarily based behavioral weight manage program”. Health Psychology. 32 (2): 164–a hundred and seventy. doi:10.1037/a0028135. ISSN 1930-7810. PMC 4993110. PMID 22545978.

  • ^ Harvey, Jean; Krukowski, Rebecca; Priest, Jeff; West, Delia (2019). “Log Often, Lose More: Electronic Dietary Self-Monitoring for Weight Loss: Log Often, Lose More”. Obesity. 27 (3): 380–384. doi:10.1002/oby.22382. PMC 6647027. PMID 30801989.

  • ^ Albgomi. “Bariatric Surgery Highlights and Facts”. Bariatric Surgery Information Guide. bariatricguide.org. Retrieved 13 June 2013.

  • ^ “Gastric skip dangers”. Mayo Clinic. 9 February 2009.

  • ^ Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Sherwood, Nancy E.; French, Simone A.; Jeffery, Robert W. (March 1999). “Weight manage behaviors among adult ladies and men: Cause for subject?”. Obesity Research. 7 (2): 179–88. doi:10.1002/j.1550-8528.1999.tb00700.x. PMID 10102255.

  • ^ Thomas, Paul R. (January–February 2005). “Dietary Supplements For Weight Loss?”. Nutrition Today. 40 (1): 6–12.

  • ^ Barabasz, Marianne; Spiegel, David (1989). “Hypnotizability and weight loss in overweight subjects”. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 8 (three): 335–41. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(198905)eight:three<335::AID-EAT2260080309>3.0.CO;2-O.

  • ^ a b Kirsch, I. (June 1996). “Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight reduction treatments–another meta-reanalysis”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 64 (three): 517–19. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.sixty four.three.517. PMID 8698945. INIST:3143031.

  • ^ Andersen, M. S. (1985). “Hypnotizability as a component inside the hypnotic treatment of weight problems”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 33 (2): 150–59. doi:10.1080/00207148508406645. PMID 4018924.

  • ^ Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S. (June 1996). “Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: A meta-analytic reappraisal”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 64 (3): 513–sixteen. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.3.513. PMID 8698944.

  • ^ Ruiz, F. J. (2010). “A evaluate of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) empirical proof: Correlational, experimental psychopathology, element and final results studies”. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 10 (1): a hundred twenty five–62.

  • ^ Maunder, Alison; Bessell, Erica; Lauche, Romy; Adams, Jon; Sainsbury, Amanda; Fuller, Nicholas R. (27 January 2020). “Effectiveness of natural drugs for weight loss: A systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 22 (6): 891–903. doi:10.1111/dom.13973. ISSN 1463-1326. PMID 31984610.

  • ^ “The records approximately weight reduction merchandise and programs”. DHHS Publication No (FDA) 92-1189. US Food and Drug Administration. 1992. Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2013.

  • ^ “Profiting From America’s Portly Population” (Press release). PR Newswire. Reuters. 21 April 2008. Archived from the unique on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.

  • ^ a b “No proof that famous slimming supplements facilitate weight reduction, new research unearths”. Bastille Day 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.

  • ^ a b c Thom, G; Lean, M (May 2017). “Is There an Optimal Diet for Weight Management and Metabolic Health?” (PDF). Gastroenterology (Review). 152 (7): 1739–1751. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.01.056. PMID 28214525.

  • ^ Wadden, Thomas A.; Webb, Victoria L.; Moran, Caroline H.; Bailer, Brooke A. (6 March 2012). “Lifestyle Modification for Obesity”. Circulation (Narrative evaluate). one hundred twenty five (nine): 1157–1170. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.039453. PMC 3313649. PMID 22392863.

  • ^ a b Atallah, R.; Filion, K. B.; Wakil, S. M.; Genest, J.; Joseph, L.; Poirier, P.; Rinfret, S.; Schiffrin, E. L.; Eisenberg, M. J. (Martinmas 2014). “Long-Term Effects of four Popular Diets on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials”. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes (Systematic assessment of RCTs). 7 (6): 815–827. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.113.000723. PMID 25387778.

  • ^ a b Avery, Amanda (2018). “4.7 Commercial weight control enterprises for weight loss in weight problems.”.In Hankey, Catherine (ed.). Advanced nutrients and dietetics in obesity. Wiley. pp. 177–182. ISBN 9780470670767.

  • ^ a b Tsai, AG; Wadden, TA (four January 2005). “Systematic review: an assessment of primary industrial weight loss packages within the United States”. Annals of Internal Medicine (Systematic evaluation). 142 (1): 56–66. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-142-1-200501040-00012. PMID 15630109. S2CID 2589699.

  • ^ a b Allan, Karen (2018). “4.four Group‐primarily based interventions for weight reduction in weight problems.”.In Hankey, Catherine (ed.). Advanced nutrients and dietetics in obesity. Wiley. pp. 164–168. ISBN 9780470670767.

  • ^ Vakil, RM; Doshi, RS; Mehta, AK; Chaudhry, ZW; Jacobs, DK; Lee, CJ; Bleich, SN; Clark, JM; Gudzune, KA (1 June 2016). “Direct comparisons of business weight reduction applications on weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure: a scientific assessment”. BMC Public Health (Systematic evaluation). 16: 460. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3112-z. PMC 4888663. PMID 27246464.

  • ^ a b Gudzune, KA; Doshi, RS; Mehta, AK; Chaudhry, ZW; Jacobs, DK; Vakil, RM; Lee, CJ; Bleich, SN; Clark, JM (7 April 2015). “Efficacy of business weightloss packages: an updated systematic evaluate”. Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (7): 501–512. doi:10.7326/M14-2238. PMC 4446719. PMID 25844997.

  • ^ Kernan, Walter N.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Sawan, Carla; Macko, Richard F.; Furie, Karen L. (January 2013). “Obesity – A Stubbornly Obvious Target for Stroke Prevention”. Stroke (Review). 44 (1): 278–286. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.639922. PMID 23111440.

  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l National Cancer Institute (November 2011). “Nutrition in most cancers care (PDQ)”. Physician Data Query. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved three July 2013.

  • ^ a b Huffman, GB (15 February 2002). “Evaluating and treating unintentional weight loss in the aged”. American Family Physician. 65 (four): 640–50. PMID 11871682.

  • ^ a b c d e f g h Payne, C; Wiffen, PJ; Martin, S (18 January 2012).Payne, Cathy (ed.). “Interventions for fatigue and weight loss in adults with advanced progressive illness”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD008427. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008427.pub2. PMID 22258985.(Retracted, see doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008427.pub3. If that is an intentional citation to a retracted paper, please update Retracted with intentional=sure.)

  • ^ Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Nutrition Services for Medicare Beneficiaries (9 June 2000). The position of nutrients in preserving fitness in the state’s elderly: comparing coverage of nutrients offerings for the Medicare population. National Academies Press. p. sixty seven. ISBN 978-zero-309-06846-8.

  • ^ a b c d e f g h National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK) (February 2006). “Nutrition Support for Adults: Oral Nutrition Support, Enteral Tube Feeding and Parenteral Nutrition”. NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 32. National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

  • ^ a b c d e Yaxley, A; Miller, MD; Fraser, RJ; Cobiac, L (February 2012). “Pharmacological interventions for geriatric cachexia: a narrative assessment of the literature”. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. sixteen (2): 148–54. doi:10.1007/s12603-011-0083-eight. PMID 22323350. S2CID 30473679.

  • ^ a b c d e f Itoh, M; Tsuji, T; Nemoto, K; Nakamura, H; Aoshiba, K (18 April 2013). “Undernutrition in patients with COPD and its remedy”. Nutrients. five (4): 1316–35. doi:10.3390/nu5041316. PMC 3705350. PMID 23598440.

  • ^ Mangili A, Murman DH, Zampini AM, Wanke CA; Murman; Zampini; Wanke (2006). “Nutrition and HIV infection: evaluation of weight reduction and losing in the era of surprisingly energetic antiretroviral remedy from the nutrition for healthful residing cohort”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42 (6): 836–forty two. doi:10.1086/500398. PMID 16477562.CS1 maint: more than one names: authors listing (hyperlink)

  • ^ Nygaard, B (19 July 2010). “Hyperthyroidism (number one)”. Clinical Evidence. 2010: 0611. PMC 3275323. PMID 21418670.

  • ^ National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK) (2004). Type 1 diabetes in adults: National clinical tenet for analysis and control in primary and secondary care. NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 15.1. Royal College of Physicians UK. ISBN 978-1860162282. Retrieved 3 July 2013.

  • ^ a b Mangili, A; Murman, DH; Zampini, AM; Wanke, CA (15 March 2006). “Nutrition and HIV infection: assessment of weight loss and wasting inside the generation of fantastically energetic antiretroviral therapy from the vitamins for healthy residing cohort”. Clinical Infectious Diseases. forty two (6): 836–forty two. doi:10.1086/500398. PMID 16477562.

  • ^ Herbert, Georgia; Perry, Rachel; Andersen, Henning Keinke; Atkinson, Charlotte; Penfold, Christopher; Lewis, Stephen J.; Ness, Andrew R.; Thomas, Steven (2018). “Early enteral nutrients within 24 hours of decrease gastrointestinal surgery as opposed to later graduation for duration of clinic stay and postoperative complications”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD004080. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004080.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6517065. PMID 30353940.

  • ^ a b Burden, S; Todd, C; Hill, J; Lal, S (2012).Burden, Sorrel (ed.). “Pre‐operative Nutrition Support in Patients Undergoing Gastrointestinal Surgery” (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 11 (11): CD008879. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008879.pub2. PMID 23152265. Lay precis.

  • ^ Alibhai, SM; Greenwood, C; Payette, H (15 March 2005). “An approach to the control of unintentional weight loss in aged humans”. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 172 (6): 773–eighty. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1031527. PMC 552892. PMID 15767612.

  • ^ a b “Does Metabolism Matter in Weight Loss?”. Harvard Health. Retrieved 18 June 2018.

  • ^ Long, Jacqueline (2015). The Gale Encyclopedia of Senior Health. Detroit, MI: Gale. ISBN 978-1573027526.

  • ^ Harsha, D. W.; Bray, G. A. (2008). “Weight Loss and Blood Pressure Control (Pro)”. Hypertension. fifty one (6): 1420–25. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.547.1622. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.094011. ISSN 0194-911X. PMID 18474829.

  • ^ Veronese, N; Facchini, S; Stubbs, B; Luchini, C; Solmi, M; Manzato, E; Sergi, G; Maggi, S; Cosco, T; Fontana, L (January 2017). “Weight loss is related to enhancements in cognitive characteristic amongst obese and overweight humans: A systematic evaluate and meta-analysis” (PDF). Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 72: 87–ninety four. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.11.017. PMID 27890688. S2CID 207093523.

  • External hyperlinks

    • Weight lossat Curlie
    • Health benefits of dropping weight By IQWiG at PubMed Health
    • Weight-control Information NetworkU.S. National Institutes of Health
    • Nutrition in most cancers care By NCI at PubMed Health
    • Unintentional weight loss

    Add a Comment

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *